Before 1989, Italian law did not allow charges for parking unless it was “custodito”, i.e. there was a parking attendant. This applied to street parking as well, and essentially resulted in free on-street parking. Although cities could and did implement time limits, there was not very strict enforcement, since it was usually a low priority of local police departments. By the 1980’s city leaders and urban planners realized a change was needed and in 1989 the government delegated the authority to regulate parking charges to the cities.
In 1994, Torino implemented its parking program, which included the designation of blue zones where parking would cost a fee, and assigning the management of the street parking program to the same agency that operated the public transportation service, (then AMT, now the GTT). It is based on the principle of charging more for street parking the closer the street is to the city center and is described in post link here. The city used the generated revenue to not only pay for the striping and parking machines but also to build underground parking garages. Today, there are 55,000 paid spaces, 7200 of which are underground. Currently the revenues are €25 million per year.
Milano and Genova also have blue zones but the three cities vary in how residential parking is accommodated with respect to these blue zones.
Torino- Torino’s blue zones is essentially the center core of the city, about 1.5 mile in diameter. It is available for any member of the public and also residents with permits. The difference is that residents pay for the permit but __??
This system benefits the nonresidents since there are more spots available for them to park in.
Torino uses Yellow pavement striping for designating disabled parking spaces, bus stops and taxi zones.
MIlano- Milano has also divided its street parking into blue and yellow zones but with different meanings. Only residents with permits can park in the yellow zones. All others, i.e. vsitors, workers, shoppers, etc. must park in the blue zones. This system benefits the residents since they do not have to share their spaces with non residents. They pay the same or no?
Genova – Genova has more acute shortage of land, exemplified by many very narrow streets and thus has far less onstreet parking to begin with compared to Torino and Milano. Their approach was to designate blue zones in the most congested locations of the city, the centro storico and a few other locations, and only residents and people who work in the vicinity can park there. They need to display a permit and pay the parking fee if they park during the hours the fee applies. If you are not are resident or work, for example you are visiting someone who lives there or want to shop or go to a restaurant, your options are to arrive without a car or pay for parking at a private parking facility (called a parcheggio rotazione- since these parking spaces are not reserned but turnover frequently).
Not sure how motorcyles are accommodated, in this situation but judging from the mass quantities of motorcycles and scooters, I would guess they park for free or less.
I would like to thank Prof. Franco Corsico, Arch. Federica Alcozar and Prof. Paolo Rigante of Milano for help in describing the policies of Torino, Genova and Milano, respectively.