Street Parking – Torino, Genova and Milano

Before 1989, Italian law did not allow charges for parking unless it was “custodito”, i.e. there was a parking attendant. This applied to street parking as well, and essentially resulted in free on-street parking. Although cities could and did implement time limits, there was not very strict enforcement, since it was usually a low priority of local police departments. By the 1980’s  city leaders and  urban planners realized a  change was needed and in 1989 the government  delegated the authority to regulate parking charges to the cities.

In 1994, Torino implemented its parking program, which included the designation of blue zones where parking would cost a fee, and assigning the management of the  street parking program to the same agency that operated the public transportation service, (then AMT, now the GTT).   It is based on the principle of charging more for street parking the closer the street is to the city center and is described in post link here.  The city used the generated revenue to not only pay for the striping and parking machines but also to build underground parking garages. Today, there are 55,000 paid spaces, 7200 of which are underground. Currently the revenues are €25 million per year.

Milano and Genova also have blue zones  but the three cities vary in how residential parking  is accommodated with respect to these blue zones.

Torino- Torino’s blue zones  is essentially the center core of the city, about 1.5 mile in diameter.  It is available for any member of the public and also residents with permits.  The difference is that residents pay for the permit but  __??

This system benefits the nonresidents since there are more spots available for them to park in.

Torino uses Yellow pavement striping  for designating disabled parking spaces, bus stops and taxi zones.



MIlano- Milano has also divided its street parking into blue and yellow zones but with different meanings. Only residents with permits can park in the yellow zones. All others, i.e. vsitors, workers, shoppers, etc.  must park in the blue zones. This system benefits the residents since they do not have to share their spaces with non residents. They pay the same or no?


Genova Street Parking Sign

Genova – Genova has more acute shortage of land, exemplified by many very narrow streets and thus has far less onstreet parking to begin with compared to Torino and Milano. Their approach was to designate blue zones in the most congested locations of the city, the centro storico and  a few other locations, and only residents and people who work in the vicinity can park there. They need to display a permit and pay the parking fee  if they park during the hours the fee applies.  If you are not are resident or work, for example you are visiting someone who lives there or want to shop or go to a restaurant, your options are to arrive without a car or pay for parking at a private parking facility (called a parcheggio rotazione- since these parking spaces are not reserned but turnover frequently).

Not sure how motorcyles are accommodated, in this situation but judging from the mass quantities of motorcycles and scooters, I would guess they park for free or less.

I would like to thank  Prof. Franco Corsico,  Arch. Federica Alcozar and  Prof. Paolo Rigante of Milano for help in describing the policies of Torino, Genova and Milano, respectively.

Steep and Forested Stuttgart

“Old” Stuttgart is located in the valley of the Neckar River  (Flüss Neckar) surrounded by steep hills up to 300 meters high. On many of these hilltops and other valleys were independent villages with their own town centers.  Stuttgart grew from a city of almost 300,000 to over 500,000 in the 1920’s mainly by  annexing many of these surrounding villages.  At late as 1942, they incorporated the village of Möhringen into their city. (The words annex and incorporate are used descriptively  and do not  necessarily have the  same legal meaning as used in the United States; these villages may or may not have been cities in their own right). The map shown below, labelled by others as “Stuttgart’s suburbs”  is really a map of Stuttgart’s neighborhoods, many of which were these former villages. Gerlingen on the west is outside the city limits and is one of the many separate cities or suburbs that surround the city.

Given the terrain of mountainous forests and valleys, the results is that 40 % of Stuttgart’s current land area of 207 square kilometers is protected forest. As can be seen in Figure 2, these forests are located throughout the city, not merely on the perimeter or the far east or west. Historically, these forests were considered too steep for building and now, they are mostly owned by the state  of Baden-Württemberg or the City.  The state not only owns the forest land, they also manage and harvest the timber themselves, bringing in revenue to the state.  Decades if not centuries of forest management in Germany could and probably has filled the pages of several research papers.

In addition, 10% of the land area is agriculture; this land use is  also considered essential for many reasons, not the least of which is climate; the winds from the mountains need the corridors provided by the agricultural  lands to cool the city in the summertime. Retaining agriculture designation was aided if not enforced by national legislation in the 1960’s. Again, this crucial practice will be left for another research paper.  Despite the industrial growth spurred by the invention of the automobile in the late 1800’s  simultaneously in both Bad Cannstatt, (formerly a village and now a neighborhood of Stuttgart)  and nearby Mannheim, and the resulting development pressures, Stuttgart retained both of these types of crucial “Open Space” that make Stuttgart a very green and visually attractive city.

Stuttgart suburbs

There are a few indications of the terrain when you look at the public transit system:

  1. Typical slope for the Light Rail is as high as 7 %, and one line is even steeper,  8.5%.
  2. There are several tunnels for the light rail trains, which flatter cities don’t have to fund.
  3. There is one cog rail line, with a trailer for bikes.
  4. There is one cable car line, which serves a cemetery.

EU Rules on Environmental Quality, Cars and other things

EU Rules are running the show in a lot of ways.

1. EU is encouraging all bigger cities to encourage clean transportation and public transportation and thus many cities in Italy (including Torino as of 2009) now have a Bike Office in their city government. If a country does not follow EU’s rules, (for lack of a better word), then  the UE can fine the country; in fact for certain rules  if a country fails to fulfil its obligations, the UE can put a  judgement on  the country;   the following link contains examples of judgements on various topics such as endangered species, hazardous waste :

2.  Italian  cities’  bike share and car share programs are funded through their regione’s environment department. I  suspect but have not confirmed this is also due to an EU policy or rule to improve air quality and increase sustainable transportation modes.

3. I already posted about the rules on public transportation companies and competitive bidding  and will be updating that as I find out more at:

4.  As of September 2009, all new cars  in Europe, (not only “Made in Europe” ) must have a rating of  Euro 5 – the cleanest rating , i.e.  they must be methane, LPG or cleaner diesel, and cleaner gasoline-powered cars.  Euro5 cars have strict emission standards  for diesel and LPG; methane and gasoline, and stricter standards, Euro -6, kick in in 2014.  Social consciousness  of clean cars is already apparent: 30% of new cars sold in Italy in the last 6 months have been methane-powered.

The rules are here:

In short it says :  “Member States must refuse the approval, registration, sale and introduction of vehicles that do not comply with these emission limits. An additional delay of one year is allowed for goods transport vehicles and vehicles designed to fulfil specific social needs (category N1, classes II and III, and category N2). Time frame:

  • the Euro 5 standard will come into force on 1 September 2009 for the approval of vehicles, and from 1 January 2011 for the registration and sale of new types of cars;


Euro 5 standard

Emissions from diesel vehicles:

  • carbon monoxide: 500 mg/km;
  • particulates: 5 mg/km (80% reduction of emissions in comparison to the Euro 4 standard);
  • nitrogen oxides (NOx): 180 mg/km (20% reduction of emissions in comparison to the Euro 4 standard);
  • combined emissions of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides: 230 mg/km.

Emissions from petrol vehicles or those running on natural gas or LPG:

  • carbon monoxide: 1 000 mg/km;
  • non-methane hydrocarbons: 68 mg/km;
  • total hydrocarbons: 100 mg/km;
  • nitrogen oxides (NOx): 60 mg/km (25% reduction of emissions in comparison to the Euro 4 standard);
  • particulates (solely for lean burn direct-injection petrol vehicles): 5 mg/km (introduction of a limit that did not exist for the Euro 4 standard).

These car ratings can affect other aspects of your life.  For example Torino uses them determine whether you can drive your car into the center city.  Torino has two levels of ZTL Traffic Limited Zones, sort of like congestion pricing but without the pricing: you cannot buy your way in.  From 8 am to 7 pm only cars. motorcycles and scooters rated 2, 3, 4, or 5 can drive into the city, the oldest and dirtiest rated 0 and 1 may not enter.  In the inner center city no one except residents can enter between 7 a.m  and 10:30 am.. Those are called, respectively the ZTL ZTL “>ZTL “>Ambiente and the ZTL normale. Beginning in 2010 they will combine these two zones into one  the bigger zone.

4.  Not really an EU issue,   but  FYI: all the autostrade in Italy are built privately under authorization from the state i.e. country and then the company charges tolls to recoup their costs. Thus there are no “freeways ” in Italy, (I didn’t know that and wouldn’t because I have never been on an autostrade, io prendo il treno.)  (There goes one argument for funding bikeways 🙂 but taxes still pay for all the other streets and to subsidize public transit.)  Typically, (at least it is true in Torino) on the ring (or tangential) road there is no toll,  in order  to encourage people to use them instead of driving through town.

More about SSB

SSB = Stuttgarter Strassenbahnen AG

Other interesting factoids:

  1. Bikes are allowed, free of charge except mon-friday from 6 am to 8:30 and 4:00 to 6:30 p.m. (The S-Bahn has a similar policy but it charges a fee.
  • 2. SSB now prefers grassy or “lawn” around their tracks instead of hardscape because:
    • more pleasing to the eye
    • better for climate in the city
    • better for global warming
    • better for absorbing and storing moisture
    • easier to maintain
    • okay so not so gorgeous in october, but I am assured that in spring and summer, the green trackways are quite beautiful and much appreciated by the citizens .


  • 3.  50 % of light rail riders own a car, thus have choice
  • 4.   40 % of operating costs are covered by fares
  • Stuttgart-the Motor City that has Supported Public Transportation for Decades

    Stuttgart,  Baden- Wurttemberg,  Deutschland.

    • Hometown of Gottlieb Daimler,  (1834-1900) inventor of the automobile /the internal combustion engine. (Okay history buffs, there was Karl Benz also, from Mannheim; I  think scorekeepers give them a tie, at least the Mercedes-Benz museum does, ( which is in Stuttgart, not Mannheim).)DSCF2432
    • Headquarters of Mercedes-Benz,  Porsche, Bosch. the soccer team plays in the Mercedes-Benz Stadium and other events are held in the Porshe Arena.  I saw a sign that said Bosch Areal- Bosch Area?
    • Affluent.
    • Hilly.DSCF2360

    Why then, in the 1950’s, when cities across Europe and USA were dumping their streetcars  and designing their cities around automobiles (mainly) and buses (sort of), did Stuttgart not only retain its trams, but also proactively look to the future and analyze the options for the best public transportation system for Stuttgart?  The answer to that question will have to be answered by someone else.  (Or maybe in fact it has  already been.  Anybody know if this has been written about? Let me know!)

    I will focus on describing what they chose to do and what it looks like today.

    (See post on SSB for info on the Transit Agency itself, or see blogroll in the margin for their link, in English.)

    First- the  terminology used by the City of Stuttgart:

    • Tram or  Straßenbahn– what we in America would call a streetcar (translates as streetrail)
    • Stadtbahn -(Translates as city rail. It is abbreviated as U-Bahn (U stands for Unabhängig which means Independent as in independent right-of-way).  Will explain how this differs from a tram below.
    • S-Bahn– what we in America call Commuter Rail, except not like Caltrain. They’re electric, and also underground downtown. (S stands for Schnell- fast or faster?) (not to confuse you, but operated by DB)
    • R-Bahn – Regional Rail  – what we don’t  have in America, really, except maybe amtrack in the northeast corridor. (not to confuse you, but operated by DB)
    • Deutsche Bahn- D-BahnDB– Long distance trains are another level of trains- but are not considered part of the City or County  transportation network. In America, we fly.

    It has something to do, as all good (or bad) policy decisions, with the political leadership at the time.   Especially influential was Burgermeister Manfred Rommel, the  mayor of Stuttgart between 1974 and 1996, (only son of that Rommel).  Among other things, he strongly supported giving trams /streetcar  priority at traffic signals; with the subsequent advance in technology in the last 30 years, this is a 100 % effective today.

    Brief history: Beginning in the 1950’s city leaders recognized that the traffic congestion was impeding the effectiveness of the trams on the street; a study was commissioned and delivered in 1959; by 1961 the city was building underground lines for the trams in the city center and had an ambitious plan for an electric underground rail system.  By the late 60’s additional analysis  was performed and concluded that:  1) extending / converting/ expanding these underground lines into a subway/metro would not be best for Stuttgart; the population was and was projected to be too low to support it; and 2) dual service (U-bahn, S-bahn and R-bahn along the same corridor) was eliminated from the plans.

    In 1976, the City decided to upgrade their existing trams (__ km on ___lines)  and have a high quality mostly surface transportation system, incorporating elements of a metro in the dense urban core, where 7 of the 16 lines converge, and upgrading the rest of sytem from “tram” to Light Rail”. This was compatible with the undergrounding that had occurred to-date and had has been incrementally implemented ever since.  As of October 2009, only 8 km of 1.o m gauge remain to be converted.

    Metro Elements

    • A network of lines  (16) that cover the entire city.
    • Each line is numbered and has a distinct color and are shown on all city maps.
    • Level platform boarding.
    • Underground in the center city with multiple platforms for the intersecting lines.
    • Service frequency: every 10 minutes or less
    • Service hours: 4:30 am to 1:30 am.
    • Distinctive signing, real time information.

    Upgrading from Tram to Light Rail -what  does that mean in Stuttgart?

    • Switched from 1.o meter gauge to standard gauge.
    • Increased min horizontal curvature radius from 25 m to 50 m.
    • __ % max grade to 8.5% max grade.
    • 100 % priority at traffic signals.
    • Independent ROW,  (except a few exceptions at the extremities of some lines).
    • Computer controlled with automatic breaking if operator failure.
    • Electronic display destination signs inside the vehicles.

    Other upgrades from the former tram cars:

    • Air-conditioning
    • Wide panoramic tinted windows
    • Outside arm rests
    • Coordinated interior design
    • Upholstered seats
    • Spacious entry ways
    • Space for bikes, wheelchairs and prams
    • Intercom communication with driver
    • Regenerative braking

    The independent ROW was obtained in several ways:

    • historically the tram had operated in an independent or exclusive  ROW;
    • removed street parking;
    • removed travel lane;
    • eminent domain (in American terminology; they need State approval);
    • Flexibility: in some locations, one direction of track has an exclusive row and the opposite direction shares with mixed with traffic.

    As you can see, it was not a simple task to convert from tram to Light Rail. Even when they had the exclusive ROW, new track had to be laid at the new gauge, at cruves  they needed new alignment to meet the larger radius.  New signal equipment was needed at every traffic signal and of course, new vehicles were bought.

    The first full line line to be converted was the U3, which opened for service in 1985.  By 2009, they have  completed 120 line KM, 24o km of track. As each line reopened after the conversion, there was an immediate 20 % increase in ridership. There is one last section, 8 km,  of old tram.

    Of course a transit agency’s job is never done. There are plans to extend several lines, and the first cars bought 25 years ago are now being rebuilt in-house (at a pace of about one a month, €1.5  million each, compared to €5 million new).DSCF2332

    It should be noted that  the initial plan developed in 1979 has been modified as time and conditions changed. For example, when the old army base was converted to a neighborhood (just outside the city limits), part of the project was the extension of the a light rail into the neighborhood.

    Steep steep GENOVA and public transit

    At first glance, Genova may not seem like it has a lot of public transportation, but given the constraints they are forced to deal with, you have to give the city credit. So instead of giving them the award for the world’s shortest metro network, (well, the shortest that I am aware of anyway, 7 stations 5.5 km) I will instead give them an A for effort. Unlike the other five cities I am studying, Genova is really squeezed in between the mountains and the sea. According to ISTAT, (Italy’s statistics website)  Genova is all hills and mountains, no plains. I would guess less than 5% of Genova is flat, (much due to landfill and port activity). It is sort of like Oakland with maybe one-third of the flatlands, and with hills that look more like Hawaii-style mountains than the coastal range we have. Consequently all 600,000 people live in about 65 square kilometers compared to the 240 square kilometers that are in the city limits. That makes it much denser than Milano and Torino, not the other way around. At one point, the city usable width is only 0.5 kilometer, and given that the city has 33 km of coast, one can imagine the long skinny layout of the urbanized area.
    The sea and harbor are almost always in view, given the narrowness of this strip of land and the topography sloping upwards that helps you to see over the land to the west. You are constantly aware of the maritime nature of the city, and can see the cruise ships of the Mediterranean Sea bringing in hordes of tourists, not to mention running into all the tourists in the tourist office, at the cathedral, on the streets and in the restaurants. There are of course many ferries going to and from Corsica, Marseilles, Sardigna, and other seaside towns.

    AMT, the public transportation provider, operates two ferries, one to the airport, (land fill was apparently the best or only option to provide the flat areas needed for runways), and one to the Pegli neighborhood. Terrestrial public transportation is dependent on buses, regular and smaller sizes, trolley buses and the recent expansion (2004) of their Metro from 3 stations to the aforementioned 7 and soon to be nine. This helps many Genovese and tourists travel underground quickly without battling for the limited space on the surface. It is operated by the same agency as the buses and ferries, AMT, and the fares are not only coordinated, they are considered part of the same trip. One ticket  (E 1.2) will get you on the metro and onto a bus or vice versa for up to 90 minutes of travel. The entrance to the metro station has turnstyles but you validate your ticket before you go through using the same type of machine you find on the bus. Unless of course, you have one of the many kinds of passes and subscriptions available. My favorite was the 4-Euro 24 hour pass that came with a little book describing all the things to see in Genova. (I had to read about them since I didn’t have time to see any of them). If I had been with friends, we could have bought a 3-person pass for Euro 7. However if I lived there, my pass would probably be the monthly at Euro 36, which also includes the local trenitalia trains.

    Given the topographical constraints, you might guess that Genova has a cable car or cog system and you would be right. There are three, one cog railway built in 1901, and two funicolare; the one I rode only has a top and a bottom, no stops along the way. It also had no driver, that is, it is totally automated, even though it is only a single track, and there is one spot in the middle that widens to two tracks so the car coming down the hill can pass the car going up the hill. And yes, you ride these with the same ticket within your 90 minutes. Or if you aren’t using the bus, you can buy a cheaper ticket at 0.7 just to ride these funicolare. The other  funicolare has 7 stops and the cog RR has 6. More about all 3 is pasted below in Italian/some translation.

    But I will bet you cannot guess the 5th type of surface transportation. Think vertical, really vertical. Yes ascensore, lifts in England, elevators in America. They have ten elevators as public transportation which again you use your transit ticket to ride.

    Now do you believe that Genova is really steep and really dense?

    Click on Flicker for a album of more pictures of the funicolare, ascesore, and other public transportation shots.

    One view of the Port of Genova

    One view of the Port of Genova

    Funicolare Zecca Righi
    Orario di apertura e capacità: Tutti i giorni.06.40 – 24.00 Capacità: 150 persone
    Frequenza e percorrenza: Frequenza:tra 15 e 20 minuti. Percorrenza: 12 minuti
    Stazioni: 7 stazioni: Zecca, Carbonara, San Nicolò, Madonnetta, Preve, San Simone, Righi
    Caratteristiche: E’ la più turistica delle funicolari, collega il centro città con il parco delle Mura, al Righi, che unisce le fortificazioni genovesi grazie ad una serie di sentieri panoramici.
    Funicolare Sant’Anna (the one I rode)

    Orario di apertura:  Tutti i giorni.07.00 – 00.30

    Hours: everyday 7 am to 12:30 am

    Capacità:30 persone
    Frequenza e percorrenza: Frequenza: corse continuative Percorrenza: 2 minuti
    Stazioni: 2 stazioni:via Bertani (corso Magenta), Portello
    Caratteristiche: E’ la più antica delle funicolari, è entrata in servizio nel 1891 con il sistema di funzionamento ad acqua.
    Ferrovia a cremagliera di Granarolo
    Orario di apertura e capacità: Tutti i giorni. 06.07 – 23.40; Oggi la ferrovia fa servizio solo sul tratto inferiore Principe – via Bari. Capacità: 45 persone
    Frequenza e percorrenza: Frequenza:tra 20 e 30 minuti. Percorrenza: 11 minuti
    Stazioni: 6 stazioni:Principe (Salita San Rocco), Centurione, Bari, Cambiaso, Chiassaiuola,
    Granarolo.Oggi sono aperte solo 3 stazioni: Principe, Centurione e Bari.
    Caratteristiche: E’ una delle tranvie a dentiera più antiche d’Italia; è stata costruita nel 1901,  anno in cui ha iniziato il servizio al pubblico

    Public Transport – Public?

    So the EU is bringing a lot of change to Europe besides the Euro,  even to Public Transportation; in fact is has already begun. Don’t quote me, but as I understand it, all and I mean ALL public transit operations contracts are to be competitively bid in the future. Even at the national level, there will no longer be national railway companies, at least not for long. The Italian law consenting to the EU “decree” was passed in 2001. It will take awhile to implement, obviously, but the first step is breaking out the many functions of these agencies. The former Italian national railway is now four different companies. Pretty soon the process will be to contract work out, essentially using RFPs and bids.

    In Torino, I have just found out,  the reason GTT was formed was to separate the planning  functions, which will remain with public agencies or consortiums thereof,  from the operations. The planning function is now performed by AMM, a new consortium of public agencies in Piemonte. GTT operates the buses trams, interurban and local trains. The employees  at the former transit agency now either work for the operator GTT or the planning agency AMM.  Right now GTT is publicly owned .i.e owned by the city of Torino, but I don’t know how long that will last).  I am still not sure who owns the rolling stock: the city or  GTT (who is owned by the City).

    I was so pleased with the integrated fare structures of all the many types of transit, and the many types of passes.  Maybe there are EU laws or national laws  (or regional laws) that will ensure that this remains the case in the future.  I was assured that public subsidy of public transit was still going to be required in the future. So that is not the issue. It is due to the EU vision of equal access to all markets.

    I wonder if that will or does apply to public utilities, like water, sewage treatment, electricity, garbage collection and other necessary public services?

    In sum, the concept of “privatizing public transit” is taking me by surprise. But maybe there is a big difference between “privatizing” it and making it subject to competitive bidding.

    I will also find out what is happening in Stuttgart and Germany. Will tell you more when I know more.

    Torino Parking & Parking Fees

    Existing Public Parking

    The GTT operates 50,000 parking spaces in 25 parking garages as well as all of the on-street parking. There are about seven other garages not managed by GTT which provide public parking.

    All on-street parking in the central part of the city is controlled; areas that are open for public parking

    are marked by blue rectangles while yellow means a restriction of some kind such as bus stop, handicapped parking or taxi.  Parking on-street outside of this  large area is free  and the roadway has no markings.  Where parking spaces are marked blue, a sign  indicates the cost and the time for which you must pay and the time limit, if any.  Fees vary from E 0.65 per hour to E 2.0 per hour and fees are higher the closer to the centro historico and in the ZTL. Residential parking permits are available for those who live surrounded by Blue Zoned on-street parking.

    On-street Parking Pricing-Torino

    On-street Parking Pricing-Torino

    Parking passes can also be bought on a weekly and monthly basis.

    All? or most of the parking garages are underground, these cost  E ____ per hour to ___ per hour.  Some parking garages are subscription only while the others are first-come first-served. Not sure who gets to subscribe. There are some tiny surface parking lots tucked in here and there, that also seem to be a combination of free and paid, but these are located outside the historic city center.

    GTT and Torino have provided some park and ride lots at its mew metro stations but they haven’t caught on since the city is so small, people who choose to drive apparently will just drive all the way into town.

    New payment system: Torino  is the first big Italian city to try a new system that uses cell phones to pay for parking. The following is from the city website, (as translated by me, so don’t quote me).

    It is not  necessary to decide before how long to park; vouchers and  tickets are not used

    In Turin it is now  possible  to pay for parking  in the  blue zone with a telephone call or with a simple sms.  A technologically advanced   transmits to  the parking- card with the cell phone –  facilitating the parking opertaions  to the all users.  The main advantage of the Telepark (the name of the system) is the fact that it is not  necessary to decide how long you want to park beforehand. Therefore you avoid:

    * To pay for time that you do not use;

    * Getting parkig tickets for expired time;

    * Having to find the parking machine to buy a ticker and needing change or small monety to buy the ticker, or alternativley, buying the ticker in advance.

    Turin is the first large town   in Italy to adopt this system of payment of the parking.  The Telepark will be valid for all the 55,000 spaces in the blue zones, subdivided into the  five subareas (A,B,C,D,E) with different  fees.

    The mechanism is the use of the “parking card”.  The first step consists in obtaining the  so-called “kit di prova” at a  price of 2.5 euro, through which one can test the service (the cost is therefore entirely spendable in parking).  In the kit in included a card with the ID code that always must be left  visible through the windshield of  the car.

    Parking Requirements for New Development

    All new development must provide a minimum amount of parking and it is divided into private  and public. Private parking spaces are for the use of that particular development, e.g.  residents or office workers and is typically underground.  Public spaces are given to the city to manage along with all the other parking spaces they manage.  The city would then decide what fee if any is charged to the public. The public parking is to accommodate the visitor type uses to the project site; including shoppers to the commercial areas, visitors to the residents of the building, etc.

    The federal government establishes a minimum rate for land uses, regions are allowed to increase this ie establish new minimum , and cities are also permitted to increase the rate. The parking rates in Torino have not changed since 1977, and are essentially the region of Piemonte’s rates.

    These parking ratios are coupled with the law that mandates “public open space”, however the public open space is also strictly defined into 4 categories, one of which is “public parking”.

    Sample parking ratios are:

    Torino’s Big Transportation Project is not just the Metro

    So I thought the new metro was the big thing in town. Turns out it is just a small piece. About 4 years ago,  the national railway along Corso Inghilterra (2-3 or more__km)  was undergrounded to accommodate European High Speed Rail into Torino.  The other necessary component to bring High Speed Rail into Torino is to make Stazione Porta Susa the main passenger station instead of Stazione Porta Nuova. This project is currently under construction and involves completely rebuilding the Porta Susa station so that it has multiple levels to accommodate the metro, the existing train lines (local, regional and freight) and the new high speed international trains. Stazione Porta Nuova will remain as a regional train station, but the intercity and international trains will use Stazione Porta Susa

    The undergrounding of the railroad tracks permitted a complete redesign of Corso Inghilterra. This  is allowing a major renovation for the neighborhoods that were formerly split by the train tracks.

    Transit Passes Torino-Style

    So I picked up a little brochure to see if I could buy a weekly pass or monthly pass to save on paying 1 Euro for each bus/tram trip. The answer was Certo, Si! Briefly let me count the ways:

    1. Daily or single rides

    • 1 ride=  € 1
    • 15 rides= € 13.5
    • daily pass= € 3.5
    • shopping pass =€2 (valid for four hours between 9:00 am and 8:00 pm)
    • travel together pass =€ 4.4 (valid for up to 4 people on weekends and holidays from 2:30 pm to 8:00 pm)

    2a. Weekly pass

    • Ordinary =€9.5 Impersonal  -valid till next Sunday (see next line for definition of impersonal)

    2b. Monthly pass

    • Ordinary impersonal= €35 (This means you can share with others, one person at a time, of course)
    • Ordinary personal= €32  (for only one person, name and ID)
    • children under 10= €12
    • students until age 25=  €18
    • senior citizen age 60+ = € 18
    • senior citizens after 9:00 am =€15

    3.  Annual pass

    • Ordinary impersonal =€330 ( can share with others, only one person at a time, of course)
    • Ordinary personal= €290  (has your photo, I think)
    • children under 10= €100
    • students until age 25=  €194/170
    • 10 month student pass= €170/153
    • senior citizen age 60+ = € 145
    • senior citizens after 9:00 am= €130

    4. Special passes for Torino residents

    • pass for the disabled (monthly – two types)
    • for the unemployed ( trimester- two types)

    5. There are four more pages explaining the fares for the suburban lines  with and without the urban routes

    If nothing else, this demonstrates  how a much thought is given to fare pricing and making it work for all the residents.  The numerous fare options that include urban and suburban buses (and two local train lines that GTT operates, not the national railway) shows how a single operator can  really make it affordable to ride transit. I love the travel together on weekends pass, as well as recognizing that you can be a student past the age of 18! until 25! And the shopping and the sr citizen after 9:00 am pass.

    Contrast this with the Bay Area in  California:

    There are no options for monthly or yearly passes that would include buses, trams,  metro/subway and train because right now in the Bay Area we have 25 +/- different operators and no fare coordination.

    Student passes stop at age 18. The discount varies widely from operator to operator.  However BART youth cards are only good for the school trip, not other trips. College-student-age transit passes exist where the university and the local transit agency get together and charge extra student fees to fund them, such as UC Berkeley and AC Transit.   I’ve never heard of a junior pass for kids under 10. Typically in the US, children under age 5 ride free with their parent, in Torino it’s children under one meter in height.

    In California,  to take a typical ride, I would have to pay:

    $1.75 to take AC transit 2 or 3 miles to the BART station;

    $3.75 to take BART  to San Francisco;

    $1.75 to take MUNI within San Francisco.

    Total cost $7.25

    To be fair, I forgot to mention the  25 cents (not %,  25 cents, one quarter)  discount on AC Transit with a BART transfer, which I won’t have on my way to the BART station, since I get it when I leave the BART station.

    A  transit trip within one agency can be just as aggravating; at VTA:

    $1.75 to take the bus to a light rail station

    another $1.75 to take light rail

    Then of course, another $3 to $6 to take Caltrain,  who is a different operator.


    Milan has very similar fare structures, with many  options for tickets and passes to  travel outside the city into the neighboring municipalities, call the Hinterlands. Passes are available weekly ,monthly and annually for regular fare, students and seniors.

    The ticket options for only within the city are listed below, I have only translated the name of the pass so far.  the interurban  and regional ticket options and the passes are too numerous to list.

    Biglietto ordinario : Ordinary ticket

    Tariffa: 1,00 €
    Validità: 75 minuti dalla convalida; consente un unico accesso in metropolitana, ferrovie e Passante Ferroviario

    Carnet di 10 viaggi  – ten trip pass

    Tariffa: 9,20 €
    Validità: 10 viaggi di 75 minuti ciascuno dalla convalida; ogni viaggio consente un unico accesso in metropolitana, ferrovie e Passante Ferroviario. Il carnet non può essere utilizzato da più persone contemporaneamente

    BI4 Biglietto integrato per 4 viaggi   – 4 trip pass

    Tariffa: 4,00 €
    Validità: 4 viaggi di 75 minuti ciascuno dalla convalida; ogni viaggio consente un unico accesso in metropolitana, ferrovie e Passante Ferroviario. Solo sulle linee ATM, nei giorni festivi vale per un numero illimitato di viaggi fino fino “>alle 13.00 se convalidato convalidato “>entro tale orario, e tutte le sere fino a fine servizio se convalidato dopo le 20.00

    Abbonamento giornaliero – Day Pass

    Tariffa: 3,00 €
    Validità: 24 ore dalla convalida senza limite al numero di viaggi

    Abbonamento bigiornaliero -Two Day -Pass

    Tariffa: 5,50 €
    Validità: 48 ore dalla convalida senza limite al numero di viaggi

    Settimanale 2×6 – Weekly pass

    Tariffa: 6,70 €
    Validità: 2 viaggi giornalieri di 75 minuti ciascuno dalla convalida, per 6 giorni della stessa settimana in cui è stata effettuata la prima convalida; ogni viaggio consente un unico accesso in metropolitana, ferrovie e Passante Ferroviario.
    Puoi utilizzare il 2×6 anche la domenica se, durante la settimana, non hai hai “>utilizzato entrambi i viaggi di una giornata; in questo caso, in fase di controllo, insieme alla matrice devi mostrare anche il biglietto, privo di timbrature, del giorno in cui non hai viaggiato

    Biglietto serale-  Evening Pass after 8:00 pm

    Tariffa: 2,00 €
    Validità: dalle 20.00 a fine servizio del giorno di convalida, senza limiti di viaggi sulla rete urbana e sui tratti in città di tutte le linee interurbane ATM.

    Biglietto per bagaglio

    Tariffa: 1,00 €
    Validità: 75 minuti dalla convalida; vale per il trasporto di un bagaglio per il quale è previsto il pagamento del biglietto. Sulla rete urbana può essere sostituito da un biglietto ordinario urbano.
    Va convalidato all’inizio del viaggio e, in caso di controllo, lo devi mostrare insieme al tuo documento di viaggio.